Syntactic patterns of Anaphoric relations in Lubukusu: representation and interpretation in a minimalist perspective
This thesis examines how LuBukusu, a Bantu language spoken in western Kenya, ' achieves anaphoric relations in syntactic constructions. The main idea is that syntactic constituents, mainly NPs, are interpreted as being co referential with other elements either within or outside the sentence in which both the anaphoric element and its antecedent occur. The hypothesis that LuBukusu anaphoric relations motivate specific structural and discoursal patterning that can be accounted for by the available models of syntactic analysis like Minimalism forms the basis of analysis. In the generative framework, such anaphoric relations were characterized in form of binding principles. Whereas numerous studies have been done on this phenomenon, based on European and Asian languages, little has been documented on African languages. This study is a contribution towards filling in this gap. In addition, an analysis that reformulates the binding principles in minimalist terms on the basis of feature interpretation and valuation is developed. Towards this end, the study makes a theoretical contribution. Contrary to many Bantuists, this thesis considers both the reflexive and reciprocal markers as incorporated pronouns with the status of arguments that undergo an analysis similar to other arguments. They are therefore not valence reducing strategies, but are only used to maintain the status quo. This sort of analysis underlies the complex relationship between morphology and syntax in agglutinating languages leading to a redefinition of the whole concept of argument marking. Consequently the study, describes both the morphological and syntactic properties of the anaphoric NPs, examines the binding relations involving these NPs, and develops an MP based analysis to account for the facts hitherto discussed. The data used for the study were purposively generated (based on characteristics of anaphoric elements and antecedents) by the researcher as a native speaker of LuBukusu, and verified for acceptability by other native speakers. The results were analysed using tables, tree diagrams and informed generalizations for results and findings. It was for example, noted that the reflexive and reciprocal markers, Agr-eene, and the phrasal reciprocal all posses unique morphological and syntactic properties such as agreement, and co-occurrence possibilities. They enter into binding relations that involve both the anaphoricelements and their antecedents. The affixal markers are largely local while the non-affixal forms are either local or non local based on semantic factors such as focus. This thesis also develops a minimalist analysis of the anaphoric NPs taken in isolation. The major idea is that since the affixes are incorporated pronouns, they are analyzed as DPs that move to spec vP position for feature checking. The free NPs are analysed as adjuncts, or arguments depending on the role they play in a construction. A similar analysis is extended, to contexts involving co-occurrences of the anaphoric elements motivated by focus or one of the valence increasing strategies such as causative or applicative markers. In either case the motivating feature triggers movement for feature checking.