Implementation of the Djibouti Peace Agreement: The Role of Different Actors and Stakeholders.
Mumma, C A
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Since the removal of President Siad Barre in 1991, the situation in Somalia has deteriorated. Over th e last two decades, the crisis has evolved from a civ il war characterized by clanism and ‘warlordism’ to a crisis that today involves transnational crimes, hu man trafficking, piracy and extremism. In addition, international terrorism is reported to be actively supported by al-Qaeda through Al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam. The resultant state failure has created a hu manitarian catastrophe of immense proportion resulting in a huge number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees in neighboring countrie s. The crisis in Somalia continues to threaten not onl y the peace and stability of the Horn of Africa but is now assuming a more global dimension. Several efforts, including the signing of 13 peace agreements have been facilitated by various bodies such as the United Nations (UN), the African Union (AU) and the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) to restore peace, law and order in Somalia, but have failed. In 2005, the Transitional Federal Charter 1 was adopted and the Transitional Federal Governmen t (TFG) established, following the conclusion of the Mbagathi round of t alks in Kenya. The TFG was given five-year tenure with key transitional tasks, including reaching out to all Somali stakeholders in order to broaden the scope of dialogue and reconciliation among all Soma lis. In furtherance of the Transitional Federal Charter and tasks, the Djibouti peace process evolv ed, leading to the signing of the Djibouti Agreemen t between the TFG and the Alliance for the Re-Liberat ion of Somalia (ARS) in 2008.