The root causes of ethnic violence in Africa. A case study of the Kenya post-election violence of 2007-2008
Rutto, Humphrey K
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This study sought to establish the root causes of the Kenya post-election violence of 2007-2008. the objectives were to find out the longstanding issues which tense ethnic relations and why ethnic violence has been recurring around elections' time. The study was anchored on the theory of structural violence. It argued that the pervasive exploitation, poverty and unemployment, nepotism, socio-economic inequalities and generally prolonged exploitative structural conditions eventually produce physical violence This research relied on primary and secondary data and descriptive survey design was employed. The target population was residents of the areas where the post election violence was intense. Cluster sampling comprising the following clusters; Eldoret, Kibera, Naivasha & Molo, Kericho and Sotik was used. The sample size comprised 39 respondents who responded to questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Secondary data was collected from books, journals and reports. Land injustices, competition for resources, economic activities, socio-economic marginalization, ethnic based parties and voting, nepotism and poverty were established as the root causes of ethnic violence. The study recommends resolution of land issues, political issues, economic justice and all round fairness. All forms of inequalities and tribal parties have to be abolished, poverty eradicated and employment opportunities created. Good electoral laws and electoral systems have to be instituted and cultural awareness and respect among ethnic groups should be promoted.