Challenges in implementation of the free secondary education policy in secondary schools of Bungoma County, Western Province Kenya
Khakasa, Joyce M
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In January 2008, the Kenyan government declared Free Secondary Education (FSE) in all public schools in the country as a fulfillment of the Education for All (EFA) global commitment and strategy to give children universal education. This important programme was adopted following campaign pledge without prior research findings. As a result, there are numerous challenges facing its implementation. This study investigated challenges in implementation of Free Secondary Education (FSE)] policy in secondary schools of Bungoma County, Kenya. The objectives of the study will be to determine: The levels of training in management by the school management on the implementation of FSE programme, asses how management of FSE programme fund has affected implementation of FSE. To evaluate the extent to which availability of teaching and learning resources has affected implementation ofFSE. Finally, study assessed the role of government funding in the implementation of FSE in Bungoma county. This was an explorative survey research that intended to establish characteristics from population in the school. The population in the school. The population comprised of 166 schools the sample of 132 schools was done through stratified random sampling technique. The instrument of data collection was researched, administered questionnaire and document analysis. The analysis of data collected was summarized through percentages, frequency, tables and significant testing done using chi-square test using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The study found out that the headteachers were least prepared for the implementation of the FSE since many were hardly trained. Implementation of FSE in schools increased the volume of textbooks in schools as well as increasing the frequency of other teaching and learning resources such as newspaper, magazine, resource persons and maps. The main management option by the head teachers was democratic although others practiced laissez fair management and authoritarian by a few head teachers. The management towards implementation of FSE was ranked poorly due to low consultations and meetings. The school management used facilitation, instruction, enforcements and persuasion to enhance proper implementation of FSE. The government enhanced learning in the secondary schools through provision of the funds to the students and guidelines for the implementation of the FSE. They also supervised the utilization of the funds to ensure it was not misused by the head teachers and other stakeholders. The study recommends that the Ministry of Education (MoE) should undertake pre-service and in-service trainings of school head teachers and BOGs in the managing of FSE. Further, the government of Kenya should establish a clear policy aimed at regulating the learning resources for FSE in secondary schools. Finally, there should be strict supervision to facilitate the smooth implementation of the FSE programme.