Collaborative management of wildlife in Kenya: an empirical analysis of stakeholders' participation, costs and incentives
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Selected wildlife co-management arrangements in Kenya are analysed using descriptive methods, benefit-cost analysis and econometric models. In 2000, household and community-level data were collected from Kimana and Golini-Mwaluganje (GM) community sanctuaries in the wildlife dispersal areas of Amboseli National Park and Shimba Hills National Reserve, respectively. It is shown that transaction costs arising from landowners' participation in the information acquisition, negotiations and operation activities are not a major factor influencing co-management efficiency. Although the lack of profitability may be a disincentive for landowners' participation, co-management can also create other stronger incentives such as protection of landowners' property rights and economic interests. The importance of structuring the co-management process in such a way that all categories of landowners participate effectively in the information gaining and negotiation phase is emphasized. There is also a need to look into ways of compensating categories or groups of landowners who incur wildlife conservation costs without access to direct benefits.