In vitro anthelmintic potential and phytochemical composition of ethanolic and aqueous crude extracts of Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl.
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Development of helminthes resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs coupled with high costs and misuse of conventional drugs call for the search of med icinal plants as alternative source of helminthes control. In vitro studies were conducted to determine the anthelmintic activity and phytochemical compounds of Zanthoxylum chalybeum. Bioassay was conducted using 70% ethanol and aqueous extracts’ in serial dilutions parallel to serial dilutions of albendazole in three replicates. Ascaris suum model was used for the assays. Phytochemical methods and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were used for qualitative phytochemical analysis. The aqueous and ethanolic ex tracts of the Z. chalybeum inhibited 100 and 93% worm motility, respectively for 48 h post exposure. There was significant differences in motility inhibition by all dose levels’ that were dose- dependent when compared with negative control (F (5, 53) = 10.62 , P = 0.001; R 2 = 0.92). There was a significant difference in mean motility inhibition by the different methods of extraction (F (2,53) = 323.80, P = 0.001). The ED 50 of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were 30.85 and 6.28 mg/ml, respectively. The potency o f the plants extracts and albendazole significantly differed (P = 0.001). The extracts contained tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, reducing sugars, coumarins derivatives, anthracenones, and anthocyanins. TLC characterization indicated the presence of polyphenols and sapogenins. In conclusion, Z. chalybeum root extracts showed anthelmintic potential and the phytochemical compounds present justify the plant’s ethno- veterinary use and could be used as improved traditional medicines