Counseling interventions for adolescent sexuality needs in selected secondary schools in Nairobi province
Sexuality is a vital aspect of an adolescents life and hence adequate information should be given to teenagers to enable them negotiate this developmental phase with few or no hitches. In this study, sexuality needs for adolescents and the role that guidance and counseling can play to address them in a school set-up were examined. The background of the study was based on the fact that many adolescents today find themselves in a dilemma when it comes to making decisions with regard to their sexuality. It looked at a school setting whereby it is agreeable that the schools provide a logical source of information about sexuality but mostly fall short of addressing questions that might prompt value based discussion and personal interaction. This education is not adequate or persuasive to help the adolescents make responsible sexuality decisions. The objective of the study therefore sought to explore adolescent sexuality needs, identifying their perceptions of sexuality, conflicts and dilemmas and how counseling interventions can be established. The study looked at the fact that adolescents need accurate and comprehensive education about sexuality in order to practice healthy sexual behaviors as adults. This study was carried out in selected secondary schools in Nairobi province. Literature was reviewed based on different themes that informed the study subject. These were adolescents and sexuality, adolescents' perception about their sexuality, sexuality development issues, adolescents' sexuality needs, and role of school in sexuality needs of adolescents, adolescents' reproductive health policy and some counseling interventions for the sexuality needs. The theories that informed the study included among others, the exchange theory, psychosexual development theory of Sigmund Freud, psychosocial development theory of Erik Erickson and behavior theory. The study was carried out in three secondary school i.e. Nairobi school, Moi Girls Nairobi and Dandora secondary school. The three secondary schools informed the study of some of the adolescent sexuality needs that teenagers are grappling with and how counseling interventions can be applied. Questionnaires were administered in the three schools to the students and guidance and counseling teachers in the three schools and a panel of parents had an interview based on adolescent sexuality needs. The presentation of data was done using tables and text. It has come out clearly that many of the respondents are aware of the body changes occurring to them. This is a starting point in understanding themselves and hence creates a way of learning more about the implication of these changes to themselves and the society at large. It came out clearly that body changes occur at different times as everyone is unique and hence counseling can be used as a way of assisting adolescents to negotiate this stage. It came out clearly that teacher counselors in schools need training on how to deal with adolescents' sexuality issues and how to demarcate counseling, teaching and disciplining. in order for any intervention to bear any fruits. Parents also need to be given skills to enable them deal with their adolescents because it came out clearly that adolescents need the information in order to deal with their changes.