Multilateral cooperation in counter-terrorism: Kenya and the UN
This thesis examines Kenya's cooperation levels in fighting terrorism as outlined in the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373,2001 on counter-terrorism. The study has revealed that Kenya has cooperated on two fronts: At the national level and with external partners in so far as implementing UNSCRES 1373,2001. At the national level, domestic actors, in particular the members of parliament and the civil society have voiced strong opposition to both the draft Suppression of Terrorism Bill, 2003 and the draft Proceeds of Crime and Anti-Money Laundering Bill, 2008 and this has largely stalled their progress into becoming law in Kenya. The Government of Kenya established the Anti-Terrorism Police Unit (ATPU) as a special division of the Kenya Police in February 2003 to carry out specific investigations and arrests related to terrorism, conduct specialist operations while the NSIS has been transformed to focus more on criminal intelligence, counter-terrorism, money laundering, narcotics trafficking and proliferation of illicit arms. In external cooperation, Kenya has ratified the twelve international conventions relevant to the fight against terrorism. The East African Counterterrorism Initiative (EACTI) and CJTF-HOA is the foundation for U.S. counterterrorism programs in so far as US - Kenya partnership in counter-terrorism is concerned. Kenya has ratified Africa Union's Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism 1999 and its 2002 Protocol which has developed a 'Plan of Action on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism in Africa which specifically references the obligations set out under UNSC RES1373. Some impediments, internal and external, still exists in the so far as Kenya's internal and external cooperation towards the implementation of UNSC Resolution 1373 is concerned.