Protection of civilian in armed conflicts:a case study of Somalia (1991-2008)
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The overall objective of the research is to identify the challenges facing international humanitarian law to be respected by the warring parties. There are two sub-objectives, to examines whether and how the existing rules of the International Humanitarian Law should or could be adapted to (more) adequately cover national armed groups, arrive at recommendation to help states, NOOs and the International Community as well as the competent authorities to provide humanitarian aid and monitor the implementation of international humanitarian law, not to inflict any casualties on civilians, and intervene to solve Somalia armed conflict. The research is a case study of Somalia 1991-2008. The research based on three hypothesis, those are, the ignorance of the law by Somalia combatants significantly impedes efforts to increase respect for international humanitarian law in Somalia armed conflict, lack of respect for international humanitarian law during armed conflicts affect negatively on the lives of Somalia civilians, finally, state collapse in Somalia led to the suffering of civilians in armed conflict. The main findings are, international humanitarian law lays down rules that are applicable to both state and non-state actors, the structure of Somalia conflict impact negatively on civilian protection and the diversity of conflicts and parties in Somalia makes it very difficult to formulate standard approaches or plans of action for increasing respect for humanitarian law. The main recommendation are, any benefits, or perceived benefits, for specific groups versus other groups of such infusion need to be considered, There are needs to a premium development activities that can contribute to breaking down clan division and clannism, it is important to distinguish between Islam, its institutions, and the way it is practiced by the majority of the population, and extreme and divisive tendencies pursued by a tiny minority in the name of Islam.