Effect of use of instructional materials on learner participation in science classroom in preschool in kiine zone Kirinyaga County Kenya
Participation involves working with a partner or in a small group and brainstorming in order to create a stimulating learning environment. The role of instructional materials is to glue information into learners mind as what is seen is understood more than what is heard. During the formative years, learners add increasing qualities of knowledge to what is already learnt through explorations as they grow and expand horizon on the quality of content mastered. To widen mastery of concepts, rich leaning environment which is filled with a variety of instructional materials tend to foster faster acquisition of requisite skills for sustained learning and development. Such an environment should be enticing learners to observe, actively participate, make choices and experiment which in the process results in acquisition of additional knowledge. In the absence of reach learning environment modeled by the teacher to capture requisite skills, knowledge and competence. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of use of instructional materials on learners' participation in science lesson in preschool in Kiine Zone Kirinyaga county Kenya. The objective of this study was to establish importance of grouping of learners on participation in science classroom, to study the extent to which availability and adequacy improve learners' participation and to determine the effect of management of records on the improvement in learners' participation in science classroom. The study reviewed literature on effectiveness of instructional materials on participation in science classroom. This study was guided by experiential learning theory. This theory was propounded by Kolb (2008). Kolb proposed a four-stage learning process with a model that is often referred to in describing experiential learning Beaty (2009). The study involved a descriptive survey research design where qualitative data was collected. The design was nonexperimental soliciting information from teachers on the IM they use in teaching pupils in the pre-school. This study used stratified sampling since the population embraces a number of distinct categories of teachers' qualifications. The study found that instructional materials are not effectively used in the study area due to large of number of learners per class, lack of enough compound in ECE centers, lack of learners confidence, language barrier, teachers' negative attitude, lack of professional skills and domestic violence. The study recommended that ECE centres be increased to cater for the large number of learners per class. On the same, the study recommended that more teachers be employed and deployed to various ECE centres in the study area. The study further recommended that more playing ground be purchased to enable learners be participating fully especially while experiencing moving air by the use of kites they need to run over to note the moving air. Learners should be encouraged to handle IM even in the absence of teacher that is at home to gain confidence. Parents of the learners who are shy should be improvising IM at home and encourage children to continue practicing what they learnt at school. The study recommended that teachers to ensure learners with language barrier get information taught in class by the use of language they understand better as English and Kiswahili is introduced slowly by slowly. The study further recommended that GOK to employ ECE teachers with better pay. Finally the study recommended that the 5 untrained teachers and those with certificates work on the professional skills by going for Diploma course in ECE as lack of these skills deny any teacher the knowledge required in showing and teaching learners on how to handle IM during participation.