Factors affecting participation of the girl–child in secondary school education in Migori District, Migori County, Kenya
Enhancing girl-child participation in secondary education is majorly based on socio-economic,socio-cultural, parents level of education and distance from school factors. The study purposed to establish the extent to which the factors affect girl-child participation in secondary education in Migori district, Migori county, Kenya. Four research questions were formulated to guide the study. Literature reviewed was discussed in the light of the variables affecting girl-child participation in secondary education. The study reviewed literature based on four objectives; effect of socio-economic, socio-cultural, parents level of education as well as distance from school factors on girls participation in secondary school education. The study was anchored on the Needs Hierarchy Theory developed by Abraham Maslow an American psychologists (Maslow, 1954). The study used descriptive survey. The target population of the study was the principals of 33 public secondary schools in Migori district,66 class teachers and 66 head girls and deputy head-girls. The census sampling was used to get 33 principals and 66 head girls and deputy head girls but systematic random selection was used to get the 66 class teachers two from every school. The response rate of the respondents was 100 percent. The study used questionnaires for data collection collected data were analyzed using computer. The findings from the study showed that socio-economic factors affect participation of girl child in secondary education. This resulted to lack of school uniform, lack of school fees, lack of teaching learning materials, high rate of drop-out and lack of personal effects for those with poor socio-economic background. The socio-cultural factors result to early marriages, male preference in family, community initiation into adulthood, negative attitudes of girls in education, cultural practices and feeling of being adults which do affect participation of girl child in secondary education. Parents’ level of education as a factor affects girl child participation in secondary education because it can promote or lower their participation in education. Educated parents do support their girls in their educational requirements. They also become roll models to their daughters’ participation in education they most understand what their daughters want and they do provide them with unlike the uneducated parents. Distance from school as a factor has effect on girl child participation in education. The wider the distance the more insecure the girls are in their participation in secondary education. Distance from school, makes the girl child to become fatigued due to long walking. This also result to early pregnancies as the girls meet a lot of challenges on their way to school when they walk to and fro as in case of day scholars or when they are sent home as in cases of boarders. The researcher suggests the need to carry out the study to determine other factors affecting girl child participation in secondary education. The researcher also suggests similar studies to be carried out in other districts, in private girls and mixed secondary schools and in public primary schools in the district.