Determinants of information and communication Technology integration in the teaching of sciences In public secondary schools in Kisumu East District – Kenya
Information and Communication Technology play a very vital role in dissemination of knowledge and presenting content in a sequenced manner. However, concerns about the ICT integration in the teaching of sciences have been reported widely as a global phenomenon. In Kenya, conventional methodologies of teaching which are teacher centered and less interactive continue to dominate classroom lesson delivery. The integration of ICT in teaching is very critical to the development of quality education delivery, especially in the light of changes in the system generally and demands placed on education to steer realization of Vision 2030. The study sought to establish the determinants of ICT integration in the teaching of sciences in Public Secondary Schools in Kisumu East district, with a view to suggest strategies to be employed to enhance integration of ICT in teaching of Sciences. The study was guided by four objectives: to determine availability of ICT infrastructure in public secondary schools in the teaching of sciences, to determine ICT skill level of Science teachers, to establish the frequency of ICT use in the teaching of Science and to identify strategies used by Secondary Schools to promote ICT use in the teaching of Science in Kisumu East District. The determinants were related through a conceptual framework. The study used social constructivism theory which state that the instructor assumes the role of a facilitator and a co-learner and guides, plans, organizes and provides direction to the learner who is accountable for his or her own learning. The study adopted descriptive survey design where qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Using simple random sampling method, the researcher sampled 16 schools, 16 principals, 16 science teachers and 100 science teachers. Primary data were collected using principals, science HoDs and science teachers questionnaires that were pretested to ensure reliability and validity. Data collected were analyzed using a combination of statistical computations. These included frequencies, tables and percentages. The analyzed data were interpreted and presented using tables and texts for clarity. The study found that availability of ICT infrastructure influenced ICT integration and schools that offer Computer Studies in their curriculum had well established infrastructure and the study found out that majority of their lessons were ICT integrated. The findings established that majority of science teachers were not well equipped with ICT skills and knowledge and this limited their ability to integrated ICT in their lessons. On frequency of use to deliver lessons, it was established that Science teachers rarely use ICT to deliver their lessons. The study also found out that schools have strategies to improve on ICT integration especially by in servicing of Science teachers, building and equipping science laboratory and purchasing of more ICT equipments. The recommendation from this study were that the Board of management should include in their strategic plan ICT infrastructure, Ministry of Education should prioritize inservicing of science teachers to improve on their ICT skills in order to embrace ICT in delivery of their lessons. The study concluded that ICT infrastructure influenced ICT integration as schools that had well established infrastructure had majority of their lessons delivered with ICT.