Institutional factors influencing motivation among primary school teachers in job performance in Kongoni Division In Naivasha District, Kenya
The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of institutional factors on teachers‟ motivation on job performance in public primary schools in Kongoni division, Naivasha district. Four objectives were formulated to guide the study: to determine how the school provision of physical facilities affects teachers motivational levels in job performance, examine how headteachers‟ recognition of teachers work done motivates them in job performance, determine how headteachers‟ supervision practices motivates teachers in job performance and lastly establish if headteachers‟ allocation of responsibility in shared leadership motivates teachers in job performance. The study was based on Herzberg‟s Two Factor Theory The study targeted a total population of 21 headteachers, 212 teachers and 132 pupils in 21 public primary schools. The sample size of 11 public schools was selected through random sampling and 11 headteachers corresponding to those schools were sampled for the study. The sample size for the teachers (102 teachers) was selected through stratified random sampling and simple random sampling and 66 pupils were selected for the study through simple random sampling. The study findings on provision of physical facilities established that, teaching and learning materials were adequate to schools. However, overcrowded classrooms hindered teachers in executing their duties. Staffhouses was an issue that affected teachers‟ job performance. Teachers from schools which provided houses were highly motivated than those from without. Majority of the schools within the division had inadequate staffroom space as confirmed by 63.6% of the headteachers which hindered teachers‟ assistance to the weaker learners. On the headteachers‟ recognition, it was observed that teachers were happy with their job performance by the way headteachers appreciated their work done. However, their views in choice of incentives, provision of special services and selection of teachers to attend seminars demoralized their efforts in executing their duties. Regarding headteachers supervision practices, the study showed that teachers appreciated their headteacher‟s for their prompt feedback to teachers. The study further revealed that teachers were highly motivated by headteachers role of evaluating them through performance analysis and when they are allowed to make independent decision making on their job. However, they were overwhelmingly against the headteacher‟s role of checking classwork. With the headteachers allocation of responsibility to the teachers, the study revealed that headteachers involved the teachers in major decision making which motivated the teachers in their job for the trust endowed to them for being responsible in major decision making of their schools and by giving them added responsibilities which motivated them in their job performance as they felt part of the administration. However, the study has revealed that the headteachers rarely takes teachers views on job related decisions into consideration, which makes teachers feel demoralized in their performance of their duties. The study has also established that, teachers attend their classes in time, mark pupils books all the time and they give home assignment as confirmed by 70% of the pupils. However, 63% of the pupils have confirmed that teachers do not always mark home assignments they give to learners. Finally, the study has established major challenges encountered in schools: inadequate funds, overcrowded classes, parents‟ inability to motivate teachers and poor community relationship. The study recommends that additional classrooms be provided to solve issue of overcrowding. Finally, school management, PTA and headteachers should formulate and implement internal policies on motivation of teachers to enhance job performance. The study suggests replica of the same study in the neighbouring divisions, district and private schools. The study further suggests that other factors rather than institutional factors be conducted in the same division.