Factors Affecting Implementation Of Life Skills Curriculum In Public Primary Schools In Nzambani District, Kenya
The implementation of life skills curriculum was rolled out in 2008 in all primary schools with the intention of instilling life skills in pupils. However problems such as drug and substance abuse, pregnancy, truancy, strikes, HIV and AIDS Infection are on the rise. The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the implementation of life skills curriculum in Nzambani district. Four research objectives were set to guide the study ; the influence of teachers in-service course in the implementation of life skills curriculum, the ways in which the learning and teaching resources influence the implementation of life skills, teachers perception and the influence of supervision of head teachers on teachers on the implementation. The study employed a descriptive survey design. The target population was 2,045 respondents consisting of 45 head teachers, 400 teachers and 1,600 Standard Seven and Eight pupils. The sample size was 301 consisting of 21 Head teachers, 120 Teachers and 160 pupils. Questionnaires were used as instruments for collecting data from teachers and pupils while an interview schedule was administered to head teachers. Random sampling and purposive sampling based on groups was used to collect data which was analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Validity of the instruments was done through experts in research. Reliability was established through test re-test method in two schools which were not used in the study. The results of the data were presented using frequency distribution tables. The findings of this study showed that 74 percent of teachers had not been in-serviced on life skills curriculum. The learning and teaching resources are approved by the Ministry but they are not adequate and the mostly used learning and teaching resource was the text books. Teachers perceived life skills curriculum as essential as it enhances the necessary skills and head teachers supervise the implementation of life skills. The findings showed that 64.5 percent of the teachers were supervised. Based from the study the was that teachers had not received in-service courses and therefore teachers lacked the necessary skills to implement life skills, learning and teaching resources were inadequate, teachers perceived the implementation of life skills important and supervision of teachers by head teachers was done. The study recommended giving of in-service training to teachers who have not received any kind of training by the government through workshops, seminars or the cascade model of training through the Ministry of Education, coordinating the implementation of life skills curriculum since teachers perceive it as very essential, regular supervision of life skills implementation which should be done both externally and internally and the head teachers should be ready to provide enough learning and teaching resources for the successful implementation of the life skills curriculum. The study recommended further research be extended to other districts.