Factors Influencing Implementation Of Public Health Standards In Selected City Council Markets In Nairobi, Kenya
Public Health involves the organized efforts by societies to protect, restore and promote the health of the population. The food markets often serve as the commercial and social center of communities. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors affecting implementation of public health standards in the selected City Council of Nairobi markets. The study was guided by the following four study objectives: establishing the effect of frequency of medical examinations on the implementation of public health standards in City Council Markets; determining the effect of length of vender operation in a market on the implementation of public health standards in City Council Markets; determining the effects of environmental sanitation on the implementation of public health standards in City Council Markets; and determining the effects of premises inspection on the implementation of public health standards in City Council Markets. The study used descriptive cross-sectional design method. This study focused on several stakeholders in the city markets including vendors selling their wares in the market, customers purchasing the wares from the markets, market administrators, public Health Officers from the Ministry of Health and Sanitation and Nairobi City Council. The population was grouped into three strata i.e. food, non food vendors and customers. Before embarking on fieldwork, a pilot study will be carried out to pre-test the instruments. This was done in order to assess the clarity of items, validity and reliability of the instruments. After collecting data responses from the questionnaire, the researcher analyzed the quantitative data using descriptive statistics by applying the statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS V.17.0) and presented through percentages, means, standard deviations and frequencies. The use of structured questionnaires enabled the researcher to quantify quantitative data using the size, frequency distribution, and association of variables in the study population and answers to questions that could be counted and expressed numerically. The qualitative data was coded thematically and then analyzed statistically. Content analysis was used for data that is qualitative nature or aspect of the data collected from the open ended questions. The information was displayed by use of tables, graphs and in prose-form. On the response rate 72% of the respondents from the city council filled in and returned the questionnaire, 63% of food venders, 50% Department of social Services and Housing Staff, 61 % Public Health Officers and 82% Public Health Officers filled in and returned the questionnaire. The study concluded that majority of the traders used Piped water (city council) and that garbage was collected on daily bases in some markets and twice a week in others and that majority used toilets, and used latrines that were cleaned daily In addition, the study concludes that they were Insufficient but well maintained. The study recommended that the city council should ensure that garbage is collected on daily bases in all the markets and that Public health f1icers should give advice on how you should conduct your business without breaching the public health act. Finally, the study recommends that the city council should provide sufficient and well maintained toilets.