Factors influencing implementation of Non-formal basic education curriculum at the Non-formal Education centres in Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu cities, kenya
The drive to access basic education to out-of-school (OOS) children has preoccupied successive governments in independent Kenya. Despite the efforts, attaining Education for All (EFA) has remained elusive. The reality of out-ofschool children prompted individuals or organisations to initiate non formal education (NFE). Upon recognition of NFE as a viable means of providing education to the OOS children, the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE) prepared the Non-formal Basic Education Curriculum (NFBEC) to be used by the NFECs in Kenya. The purpose of this study was to assess the implementation of the NFBEC in Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu urban centres. Five research objectives guided the study. The study employed cross sectional survey design. The target population consisted of 36 directors, 96 teachers, 750 learners and the community leaders. The study employed purposeful sampling using maximum variation. The sample size comprised of all the 96 teachers, 36 directors and 420 pupils. Data was collected by use of questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions, lessons observation and document analysis. The analysis was carried out by use of STATA 11 Special Edition (SE) statistical application, Epi info and Predictive Analytics SoftWare (PASW). The study revealed that curriculum implementation was affected by inadequate or lack of training for teachers. Most of the teachers (52.7%) had not been in-service training on the NFE curriculum. Regression of teacher characteristics and completion rates revealed that there was a significant relationship between gender (p = 0/01), age (p = 0.03) and duration at the centre (p = 0.02) and completion rates. Multiple regressions of selected teacher variables revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.184 with completion rates. Inadequate teachers challenged the implementation of NFBEC where majority (74.2%) of the directors indicated they had inadequate teachers. Linear regression of teaching methods factor (scheme of work) revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.182. The study further revealed that learner characteristics such as their attitude negatively influenced curriculum implementation. There was a significant relationship between teachers’ rating of learners’ characteristics revealed (p lesser than 0.05). Community characteristics had a significant relationship completion rates (p = 0.0105). The study recommended that the government should finance NFE centres. The Ministry of Gender and Social Services and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) under which these centres are registered should provide teaching and learning facilities. The study also recommended that Kenya Institute of Education (KIE) should provide in-service training for teachers so that they are able to translate and use the NFBE curriculum. The study suggested that a further study should be conducted to establish how other teacher variables not addressed in the study, influence curriculum implementation. A study on how other director variables affect curriculum implementation should be conducted to provide models which would predict what the directors ought to do to effectively implement the curriculum. Lastly, considering that this study was conducted in urban areas, a similar study should be conducted in rural areas to establish what factors affect curriculum implementation in such areas.