Factors influencing provision of primary education in Non-formal schools in Embakasi district, Nairobi county
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing provision of primary education in non-formal education schools in Embakasi district. The following were the study objectives; to establish the level of education for the managers and teachers in non-formal schools; to determine the level of availability of the physical facilities, to establish whether instructional materials were adequate for the provision of primary education in non-formal schools and to seek strategies of improving provision primary education in non-formal schools. This study adopted a descriptive research design. Purposive sampling was used to select 27 non-formal schools that have class eight. Simple random sampling was used to select 81 teachers. Stratified random sampling was used to select 6 boys and 6 girls per school making a total of 12 pupils from the 27 non-formal schools totaling to 324 pupils. The questionnaire was the main form of data collection tool. Three types of questionnaires were developed by the researcher for head teachers, teachers’ and pupils in the NFE schools. To determine validity of the instrument, a pilot study was carried out. Reliability of the instrument was tested for the three questions and a correlation coefficient of 0.81 for the managers, 0.78 for the teachers and 0.80 for the pupils was obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data to give the percentages and frequencies. Computer software that uses Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used. The study revealed that most of the school managers had attained a diploma level of education and some had a P1 level of education. It also revealed that there were untrained teachers. Physical facilities were reported to be inadequate by pupils. Teaching and learning materials were also reported to be inadequate. These results were supported by the teachers with majority of them indicating that exercise books were inadequate. On the strategies of improving provision of primary education in NFS slightly below half of the teachers felt that good administrative strategies would help in improvement of access, retention and performance of the schools. From the findings of this study it can be concluded that: the level of education of the managers and the teachers was low, there should be qualified teachers and also inservice courses for the untrained teachers should be offered. Inadequate physical facilities hindered provision of primary education. There were no teaching and learning materials to enhance learning in the study area. The need for good administrative strategies and qualified teachers shows that most of the schools did not have qualified teachers. In view of the conclusions of the study it is recommended that; the non-formal schools should strive to get qualified teachers and managers hence the government should enforce the education policies that require the school managers to have a specific qualification before heading a school. The government should enhance provision of physical facilities by financing non-formal schools to build more classrooms to ease congestion in the existing facilities. This will facilitate teaching and learning in the schools. KEMI should organize in-service training for teachers in non-formal schools to equip them with the skills and knowledge on teaching methods, how to maintain school facilities and handle large classes.