Energy Saving In Electricity Distribution Networks Through The Use Of Amorphous Metal Distribution Transformers A Case Study Of The Kenya Power & Lighting Company Distribution Network
Transformer power losses are made up of losses in the windings, referred to as copper loss (or load losses), and those in the magnetic circuit, referred to as iron losses (or no-load losses). Winding resistance dominates load losses, whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the no-load loss (iron losses). The no-load loss constitutes a constant drain on the electrical supply and is a running cost. Minimising hysteresis loss depends on the use of a material having a minimum area of hysteresis loop, while minimising eddy current loss is achieved by building up the core from a stack of thin laminations and increasing resistivity of the material in order to make it less easy for eddy currents to flow. The magnetic core of Amorphous Metal Distribution Transformer is made with amorphous metal which is easily magnetized / demagnetized and the thickness is approximately 0.03mm, which is about 1/10 compared with Cold Rolled Grain Oriented (CRGO) Silicon Steel. Typically, core loss can be 70% less than the CRGO Silicon Steel (traditional) counterpart. The present study was designed to quantify the energy saving in the electricity distribution network of KPLC through the use of amorphous metal distribution transformers. The increase in efficiency in using amorphous metal distribution transformers in KPLC network would result in energy cost savings of Ksh 621 million per year and reduction in CO2 emissions of 37,000 tons per year.