Use of Information communication technology in teaching and learning processes in secondary schools in Rachuonyo South District, Homa-Bay County, Kenya
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and Learning in Rachuonyo South District secondary schools. The focus was on three main subject matters: on ICT use and competence, on teacher and student and on ICT infrastructure and teaching practices. The study is closely connected to the national educational policy, which has aimed strongly at supporting the implementation of ICT in pedagogical practices at all institutional levels. Six research questions were formulated to guide the researcher investigate the phenomena. A descriptive survey design was used to collect data from the field through the use of questionnaire and an observation schedule. The result indicated that ICT has not been successfully integrated in teaching and learning in schools. In general, students are capable and motivated users of computers. Some students have the skills to use new kinds of applications and their ICT skills are wider although not necessarily adequate. Teachers’ skills are more heterogeneous. The large majority of teachers have sufficient skills for everyday and routine working practices, but many of them still have difficulties in finding a meaningful integration of ICT into teaching and learning. Most teachers reported that the use of ICT in learning and teaching was slow in the past years and proposed upgrading of students computer labs and accelerating internet connectivity in the schools. Further, teachers’ good ICT competence helps them to adopt new pedagogical practices and integrate ICT in a meaningful way. The results also showed that students are capable and motivated users of new technology and their ICT skills are wide, although not necessarily adequate; the working habit might be ineffective and wrong. Some students have a special kind of ICT related adaptive expertise, which develops in a beneficial interaction between students and teachers, and individual interest and activity. The most common goal to student use of ICT is challenged by the internet, digital communication and the need to filter information. Since students’ ICT skills can be translated to increased creativity, which include innovation and productive workforce, to develop capacity to ICT which support the country’s knowledge base. The findings further indicated that ICT integration realized some challenges such as availability of sufficient number of ICT tools, lack of motivation and support and lack of technical support. The challenges are either teacher-level (Microlevel), school level (Meso-level) or system level (Macro-level). These barriers have hindered successful implementation of ICT into teaching and learning processes. The study also recommended that teachers should be given sufficient training on how to use ICT tools to enhance teaching and learning in schools. The study also recommended that students should be equipped with ICT skills such as Microsoft software applications such as word, excel and access. Finally, further research on the perception of teachers and students towards the use of ICT in enhancing teaching and learning and relevant strategies for using ICT to improve teaching and learning practices should be conducted.