School based factors influencing pupils academic achievement in Kenya Certificate Of Primary Education in Makadara District, Nairobi County
Low academic achievement has been defined as failing to meet the average academic performance in tests or examination scores as defined by a set cut off points. This study investigated the school based factors influencing academic achievement in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Makadara District, Nairobi County. The specific objectives were to establish the influence of pupil-book ratio, teacher-pupil, rate of syllabus coverage and instructional leadership on pupils’ academic achievement in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Makadara district. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The theoretical framework was based on input-output theory. The input is reflected in the end product. The study targeted 26 schools, 26 head teachers, 96 teachers 348 pupils. The sample size of this study was 8 schools, 8 head teachers, 29 teachers and 104 pupils of class 7 and 8. The study utilized all the 55(100%) questionnaires from head teachers and teachers and focus group discussion for the pupils to collect data. Reliability of the instrument was done through a Pearson’s product correlation. The validity was done by conducting a pilot study on four schools that were not included in the actual study. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to collect and analyze data. The Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) software package were utilized in analyzing the data. The data was presented in frequency tables and bar graphs. The study provides insight to stake holders on ways of improving academic achievement in KCPE in Makadara District. The administrators and teachers to evaluate the findings of this study to establish the school based factors hindering pupils’ academic achievement. Findings may assist head teachers to re-examine and improve on their supervisory skills. The study findings indicate that less number of books for the pupils and minimal access to text books make pupils unable to study effectively. Minimal individual exposure to books compromise pupils’ academic achievement. The findings indicated that teacher-pupil ratio is as high as 1:70 and that there existed minimal interactions between teachers and their learners hence least assistance is accorded which has an adverse effect on academic achievement. The rate, at which the syllabus is covered, was slow in the affected schools this limited the learners’ area of scope to study and revise from. This affected pupils’ academic achievement. The study showed that most of these schools scored below 250 marks for the four years consistently. The researcher suggested that head teachers should carry out frequent instructional supervisions and advice their teachers accordingly where necessary. The researcher recommended that the staffing officer should balance deployment so that all schools received enough teachers to attend to learners adequately, and especially the slow learners. The head teachers to sensitize their parents on the importance of having enough teachers in their respective schools to be able to teach effectively.