Culture and education in kenya A philosophical study
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his culture is pre-dytermined in such a way that even if he wants to protest against his culture, he uses the language of that culture to express his protest. This amounts to saying that once cultural patterns have been established and institutionalized, they are fixed in a course of time and objectified. In this sense culture ha s connotations of being static. The subjective dimension views culture in terms of creativity; culture becomes the creation of man who creates and recreates his culture because as his economy changes, his values also change thus making culture dynamic. This means that every ethnic group, nation or class creates, borrows, transforms and develops culture in the specific historical conditions in accordance with its particular conscious interests. The subjective dimension points to the fact that culture is a process rather than a product. The thesis examines the criteria an activity must fulfil before it is termed an educational activity. Here the analysis of Peters R. S. the prominent philosopher and educationist has been adapted. Namely that any education worth its salt must concern itself with the promotion of worthwhile activities (normative dimension) must involve knowledge and understanding, (Cognitive criterion) must help bring out students with creative minds who are critically aware of their undertakings (Creative criterion) and must also involve dialogue. A difference between education and training is also examined for analytical purposes. Training suggests the acquisition of appropriate appraisals and habits of response 'in limited conventional situations. It lacks wider cognitive implications. Education consists essentially in the iniati on of others into a public wdrld picked out by the language and concepts of a people. This means that education is a purposeful a cti vity beca use it ha s a duty to perform, namely, that it is the purpose of education to transmit culture. This points out to the fact that there is a relationship between culture and education. Education and culture are seen as means and ends respectively or in terms of instrumentality and finality . The thesis is ItQ~ concerned with empirical questions, that is whether schools in fact promote or can promote culture. The school being an agent of socialization, it is assumed that it fulfils this function. It is also assumed that there is a Link between education and culture but whether this link is empirically true or not is an investigation which is left to social scientists to undertake In the thesis, the concern is to analyse the conceptual relationship between culture and education. The study attempts therefore a philosophical analysis of the concepts, culture and education. In the fina 1 ana lysis the thesis ha s come up with suggestion that more research is needed to deal with the creative and dialogical criteria and both culture and education and to put more empha sis on the subjective dimension of culture. It is hoped that the philosophical analysis, attempted in this thesis has tried Ito define in conceptual terms the educational objective, education must respect? foster: and develop Kenya's cultures which is the main theme of the thesis.