Impact of integrated family planning and HIV care services on contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.
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OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of routine care (RC) and integrated family planning (IFP) and HIV care service on family planning (FP) uptake and pregnancy outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study conducted between October 10, 2005, and February 28, 2009. SETTING: United States Agency for International Development-Academic Model Providing Access To Healthcare (USAID-AMPATH) in western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Records of adult HIV-infected women. INTERVENTION: Integration of FP into one of the care teams. PRIMARY OUTCOMES MEASURES: Incidence of FP methods and pregnancy. RESULTS: Four thousand thirty-one women (1453 IFP; 2578 RC) were eligible. Among the IFP group, there was a 16.7% increase (P < 0.001) [95% confidence interval (CI): 13.2% to 20.2%] in incidence of condom use, 12.9% increase (P < 0.001) (95% CI: 9.4% to 16.4%) in incidence of FP use including condoms, 3.8% reduction (P < 0.001) (95% CI: 1.9% to 5.6%) in incidence of FP use excluding condoms, and 0.1% increase (P = 0.9) (95% CI: -1.9% to 2.1%) in incidence of pregnancies. The attributable risk of the incidence rate per 100 person-years of IFP and RC for new condom use was 16.4 (95% CI: 11.9 to 21.0), new FP use including condoms was 13.5 (95% CI: 8.7 to 18.3), new FP use excluding condoms was -3.0 (95% CI: -4.6 to -1.4) and new cases of pregnancies was 1.2 (95% CI: -0.6 to 3.0). CONCLUSIONS: Integrating FP services into HIV care significantly increased the use of modern FP methods but no impact on pregnancy incidence. HIV programs need to consider integrating FP into their program structure