Challenges Of Slum Upgrading For Urban Informal Settlements; Case Of Soweto East Village In Kibera Informal Settlements, City Of Nairobi
The increased development of informal settlements will be the dominant form of urbanization in most developing countries. Rapid urbanization and its related consequences have been difficult to handle and manage, particularly in countries like Kenya, South Africa and Egypt. This report gives an overview of challenges of slum upgrading for urban informal settlements; case of Soweto East village in Kibera informal settlements, City of Nairobi. The report also constitutes study findings of a field research carried out in April 2013 guided by these central questions: - (i) What institutional arrangements have been put in place for slum upgrading in Soweto East village?; (ii) What are the roles of stakeholders in Soweto East village slum upgrading?; (iii) Which challenges have led to the unsuccessful uptake of slum upgrading in Soweto East village?; How can we manage the unsuccessful uptake of slum upgrading in Soweto East village? The study employed secondary data from literature review for theoretical framework development and field study tools. Purposive sampling and Stratified random sampling techniques were used in the case of Slum Upgrading Department staff in the Ministry of Housing and Soweto East Village residents whose sample sizes were 14 and 217 respectively. The study also employed case study design and the data was analysed descriptively and presented in tables and figures. Slum upgrading in Soweto East village has various stakeholders including tenants, resident and non-resident structure owners, land owners, public authorities, civil society, private sector and international development agencies. Despite the establishment of an all inclusive institutional framework for improvement and prevention of informal settlements through the Kenya Slum Upgrading Programme and Kenya Informal Settlements Improvement Programme by the government, the implementation of Soweto East slum upgrading programme faces several challenges that include:- complexities of slum settlements with regard to tenure arrangements; lack of coordination of various stakeholders; resistance to the slum upgrading programme especially by the slumlords; lack of participation by the slum dwellers in the upgrading programme; residents not being aware of their roles as stakeholders in the upgrading programme; lack of adequate land for slum upgrading; lack of goodwill and mistrust from the slum dwellers; inadequate budgetary allocations to the programme from the government exchequer; politicization of the programme; environmental degradation; varied political, cultural and religious inclinations amongst the residents and their leaders; various stakeholders being involved in the programme leading to partnership concepts that often derail the implementation schedules of the upgrading programme; and non genuine Non Governmental Organisations. It is in view of these challenges that the study recommends guidelines that are outlined in chapter five of this report for use in Soweto East village slum upgrading programme specifically and any other similar set up generally.