A Semantic Analysis Of Kisukuma Spatial Prepositions Using Image Schema Theory
This study is based on a semantic analysis of Kisukuma spatial prepositions using image schema theory. Kimunasukuma dialect was used throughout in the analysis of this work. It was established that some of the prepositions were morphologically marked succeeding the tense marker in the verbal complex while some were lexically marked. The data analysis also displayed an astounding phenomenon in which Kisukuma prepositions incorporate the subject marker, the tense marker and the object to form a verbal complex. Kisukuma prepositions brought to mind simple and complex image schemas during data analysis. Simple image schemas such as container image schema, contact image schema, direction image schema, path image schema, and place image schema were analyzed. Complex image schemas included path and contact image schemas as well as place and contact image schemas. The study used concepts like trajector and landmark to illustrate the image schemas which were visualized from different spatial prepositions. The study also found out that, the mismatch between the prepositions and the image schemas were principally accelerated by linguistic factor centred on the verb meaning which influences the evocation of the image schemas and the embodiment effects were also found to be instrumental in solving the mismatch realized between the number of prepositions and image schemas evoked. The study also confirmed that Kisukuma prepositions could be used as conceptual metaphors when expressing figurative meaning in the language. Kisukuma prepositions such as higulya, mu- ha-, hasilili, habhutongi, and hanuma were used in conceptual metaphors. The analysis showed that, not all prepositions can be used as conceptual metaphors. Furthermore, the study confirmed that, metaphors were built by two inputs; the preposition and the noun phrase. It was also established that a single preposition could stand as a conceptual metaphor. It was found out that, the source domain (LM) features had to be mapped onto the target domain (TR) in order to obtain the meaning of the metaphor.