Determination Of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Seroprevalence In Kenya Using The Liquid Phase Blocking And Nonstructural Protein Elisa Tests
Foot and mouth disease, a trans-boundary animal disease of major economic importance, is endemic in Kenya. Even with this fact, there is limited data to comprehensively show the prevalence and serotype distribution of FMD. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against foot-and- mouth disease virus in Kenya using NSP and LPB Elisa, to determine the foot and mouth disease virus serotype distribution in the country using the antibody prevalence, to determine the prevalence of FMD in disaggregated units (age and sex) and to estimate the proportion of FMD vaccination cover in the country. The study utilized sera samples available at FMD laboratory in Embakasi including Somali ecosystem rinderpest coordination and eradication unit project collected in the year 2010. The serum samples were randomly selected except in counties that had less number of samples, in which case, all the sera were considered for analysis. The samples (both porcine and bovine) were screened using commercial non-structural protein antibody Elisa kit with the positive samples subjected to liquid phase blocking Elisa test. The serology results were extrapolated in order to determine FMD seroprevalence along the various trade routes, borderlands, proposed disease free zones, national parks and games reserves in addition to pastoral and non-pastoral areas. The national prevalence of FMD in bovine species was 52.5% while that of porcine species was 54.4%. The reported vaccination cover was low at 14.1%. Using chi-square statistical test, there was significant association between seropositivity and age groups (p=0.002) and vaccination status (p=0.048) but no association with sex (p=0.063). All the five serotypes SAT 1, SAT 2, type O, A and C were found to have circulated in the country with serotype SAT 1 being the most prevalent (50.9%) serotype. A high number of animals were exposed to between two (11.9%) and three (11%) serotypes. The Kenya/Uganda borderland had the highest exposure to FMD with 95% prevalence while the Lokichogio/South Sudan/Lodwar-Pokot-Tranzoia- Uasin Gishu-Nakuru-Nairobi stock route in the Northern corridor had high prevalence of 80.5%. FMD viral prevalence was higher in non-pastoral areas at 58.6% as compared to pastoral areas that had 53%. Therefore, there is need to employ adequate and effective FMD control measures in line with progressive control pathway.