Code switching in political speeches: a case study of 2012/2013 selected presidential campaign speeches in Kenya
This study extends the study of code switching to political discourse and in particular spontenously produced campaign speeches with a view to finding out the motivation for code switching, types and functions of the same using using Myers (1993) Markedness Model.The study uses instances of campaign speeches given by presidential candidates Uhuru Kenyata, Martha Karua and Raila Odinga during the 2012/2013 campaigns in Kenya. The analysis of the data was done in chapter two and three in the light of the marked choice maxim in markedness model which is a negotiation against the unmarked (expected) choice and directs a speaker to call up for another RO set in the place of the expected choice. This is because our data revealed only instances of marked Code switching. In chapter two we analysed intrasentential code switching while in Chapter three we analysed intersentential and tag switching. It was the finding of this study that the motivation for code switching is; one, to fill a lexical gap, this showed prominence in our data. Code switching was also used for aesthetic effects through direct or indirect quotation of the speaker’s words or other person’s words in earlier incidences. Thirdly, structural flagging as a motivation for code switching was used for foregrounding and emphasis. Our study also revealed that code switching to native languages was meant to express ethnic solidarity with speakers of the same native language. The same could also be used to break through ethnic barriers even if momentarily. Instances of intrasentential, intersentential and tag code switching were revealed in our data with politicians exploiting code switching for both communicative and strategic functions. These findings are presented in chapter four with recommendations for further study.