An investigation into the role of improvisation in Information Technology project management in small & medium enterprises in Kenya
Project Management standards and practices such as the Project Management Body of Knowledge from PMI and PRINCE2 a standard for information systems project management provide guidance and tools for the effective management and control of IT projects. These standards are of increasing importance to organizations around the world in today's global economy since IT is seen as a source of competitive advantage for firms. Knowledge about these standards and use of best practice and possibilities for their use in IT projects is therefore important. However, 5MB's have not embraced these standards/practices in their IT project management and largely follow improvised processes and other unplanned behaviours. The major aim of this paper is to understand the role of improvisation and how it unfolds within the context of IT project management in 5MBs in Kenya. Improvisation herein is understood to encompass the related concepts and constructs of intuition, innovation, creativity, experimentation, reflexivity, subjectivity, modification, workarounds and best practice within the 5MB domain. Moreover, this work offers an overview of the principal unanswered questions related to improvisation in IT project management in 5MBs in Kenya and identifies possible future directions for both theoretical and methodological improvements. Benefits to entrepreneurs, researchers, academicians, and industry are numerous including learning of best practice, enhanced IT project management practice in 5MB, and improved IT service quality, but there are challenges too, in particular, how to effectively transfer the knowledge and practice to SMEs who want the competitive business advantage provided by IT but lack the capacity to implement IT projects.