Factors influencing integration of information and communication technology in teaching and learning in public secondary schools in Kenya: the case of Kirinyaga East District, Kirinyaga County
The importance of integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in teaching and learning processes in Kenya and globally cannot be overemphasized. It is becoming increasingly apparent that all aspects of people‟s lives including the way education is taught and delivered are greatly influenced by developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs).This study sought to investigate the status of ICT integration in teaching and learning in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya given the recommendations placed by a task force on the re-alignment of the education sector to the constitution of Kenya 2010 and Vision 2030. There has also been an agreement by educators and policy makers across the world on the importance of ICTs to the future of education. The main objective of the study was to assess the factors that influence ICT integration in teaching and learning in Public Secondary Schools in Kirinyaga East district so as to enhance access, equity and quality in secondary school education. The study used descriptive survey design. The study had its target population as the subject teachers, heads of departments, principals of public secondary schools, the District Education Officer (DEO) and the District Quality and Standards Officer (DQASO) in Kirinyaga East District. The target population was stratified into five strata using simple stratified sampling technique.Simple random sampling technique was used to select ten (10) public secondary school principals,forty (40) Heads of department and sixty eight (68) subject teachers. After coding the responses manually, data was entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer program for analysis. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages and mean were used to analyze the data quantitatively. Qualitative data obtained from the open-ended questions was analyzed according to themes based on the study objectives and the research questions and thereafter, inferences and conclusions were drawn. The findings indicated the existence of a large number of staff who had no prior training in ICT and could not help in the integration of ICTs. The schools did not have adequate ICT infrastructure necessary for integration of ICT in teaching and learning for example; LCD Projectors, computers and internet connectivity. The influence of principal leadership on ICT integration was indicated. The principals do not observe the strategic leadership aimed at availing and integrating ICT in teaching and learning. There were low levels of ICT literacy among the respondents and this could have hampered ICT integration.