The Efficacy of State Responses to Terrorism: A Critical Analysis of the US and Kenya’s Counterterrorism Approaches
Boiyo, Leonard N
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For nearly two decades, international terrorism has remained a considerable challenge to international peace and security, to which states have responded in a variety of ways. The 11 September 2001 Al-Qaeda directed attacks in New York, Washington and Pennsylvania elicited responses from the US that have had tremendous ramifications the world over. The 12 October 2002 attacks in Bali, Indonesia; the 23 October 2002 Moscow theatre hostage crisis; the 11 March 2004 train attacks in Madrid, Spain; the 7 July 2005 attacks in the London underground train system; the 11 July 2010 attacks in Kampala, Uganda – all these elicited significant responses from their respective governments. In Kenya, the 7 August 1998 attack in Nairobi, the 28 November 2002 attack in Mombasa and the string of attacks directed or inspired by Al-Shabaab since October 2011 have brought forth significant responses by the state. Notwithstanding these state responses, the challenge of international terrorism continues, even as states continue to pursue varied counter terrorism measures. Which begs the question: Why does international terrorism continue to pose a problem to national and international security in the face of the myriad measures? This study attempts to answer this question by critically examining the various counter terrorism measures adopted by Kenya and the US and determine how effective these measures have been.