Geographies Of Terror: A Case Study Of Garissa County (2011-2012)
The aim of this dissertation is to highlight factors that underpin occurrence of domestic and regional terrorism particularly in Kenya between October 2011 and December 2012. During this period Kenya experienced 61 terror attacks. The distribution in Counties targeted was: Garissa County experienced 29, Nairobi County experienced 11, Mandera County experienced 8, Mombasa County experienced 7 and Wajir County experienced 6. The study employs the model (FS) = MI2 + SAN + OBS – ICT, where FS refers favourable space to terrorist, MI2 refers to square mileage plus obstacles (OB) plus sanctuaries (SAN), minus penetrative information (I) communication (C) and transport networks (T). Specifically this dissertation has three objectives; first to examine and analyze what underpinned the apparent increase of terror attacks in Garissa County during the period of study. Secondly, to examine and analyze challenges in operationalizating unwritten National Security Policy and its link with the rise of terror activities in Garissa County. Lastly to proffer a research based policy options geared towards containing these attacks. The central arguments in this study are; first, the increase in terror attacks is a function of reduced costs of attacks for Al Shabaab terrorists. This is appended on increase of distance decay at Political, Social and Economic levels in Garissa County. The foregoing spawns sanctuaries in time and space that reduces the cost while increasing the utility of terror. The second argument is that this increase is a function of the challenges of operationalizing unwritten National Security Policy at the grand strategy, operational strategy and tactical levels of strategy making. The third argument is that the containment of these attacks is a reverse function of the two causes explained above.