Determinants of causes and effects of girls' drop-out: : the case study of primary schools in Kasarani division in Nairobi province, Kenya
Gakumo, Wanjiku Alice
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The objective of this study was "Determination of causes and effects of girls' drop out of primary schools in Kasarani Division in Nairobi District". The specific objectives were: To identify the factors causing high dropout rate of girls in Kasarani Division; To identify the effects of the dropout on the girls themselves, community and the country at large and to suggest practical recommendations to the problem of dropout of girls. Kasarani Division in Nairobi province was chosen because it is affected most by the problem. An explanatory descriptive survey study was used. Total population of pupils enrolled in Kasarani Division is 30,234, with girls hitting 15,246 because of the free education. mixture of purposive and quota sampling was used. Purposive sampling was used to select only five schools namely Garden Estate, Githurai, Mahiga, Njathaini and Mururui primary schools. Proportional quota sampling was used to select one hundred pupils from the five schools, one head teacher from each of the five schools, one community leader from the locality of each of the five sampled schools, one parent from each sampled school locality and five education officers. Data was collected using structured and semi-structured questionnaire. This same data was first edited for accuracy and then analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were presented in tables, pie charts and bar graphs. The study was carried out on girls of classes 6-8 because they were considered by researcher to be more mature than their counterparts and could give more mature responses. The study locale was Kasarani Division in Nairobi District which is an urban set up and is likely to be different with rural set up making the findings limited in its application. The study found out that the major cause of girls drop out of primary schools is teenage pregnancy; others are early marriage, peer influence, repetition, and child labor in that order. The major effects of girls drop out of primary schools are high death rate among the victims. Others are illiteracy, high poverty level, poor performance and frustrations in that order. On possible solutions to address the girls drop out problems according to majority of the respondents was to implement the lunch programme, followed by inclusive learning friendly environment. The other suggested solutions are guidance and counseling, follow up, rehabilitation of victims and arrest of those who impregnate girls. The study recommended that the government should introduce sex education so that the ignorant primary school girls can be educated on the negative and dangers of involving in sexual activities. Guidance and counseling should also be strengthened in schools. Teachers should also work to create inclusive learning friendly environments and to encourage and guide learners on how to go about the difficulties they experience. Parents must relate well to their children and protect them from early marriages. Action should be taken on culprits who impregnate girls and put them in difficult situations. The victims girls should be rehabilitated and given a chance to get back to school. The study suggested that a replication of the same can be done in other districts of the country. A study can also be conducted to find out why girls generally perform poorly in schools despite having visible potential to excel. Similarly, a study can be conducted to find out the role of community and those of parents in children education.