Strategic social marketing, operating environment and performance of community based HIV And AIDS organization in Nairobi County, Kenya
Kinyua-Njuguna, Jane W
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strategic social marketing and operating environment on performance of community based HIV and AIDs organizations in Nairobi County in Kenya. The specific objectives were to: determine the relationship between strategic social marketing and performance of community based HIV and AIDs organizations; explore the relationship between operating environment and performance of community based HIV and AIDs organization; assess the moderating effect of operating environment on the relationship between strategic social marketing and performance of community based HIV and AIDs organizations; and evaluate the combined effect of strategic social marketing and operating environment on performance. This study was anchored on resource based theory, exchange theory, DICES model as well as social network. The study was guided by positivistic research philosophy. A descriptive cross-sectional survey research design was employed. The target population of the study was 350 CBOs located in Nairobi County. A sample of 183 CBOs was used from eight constituencies which were proportionately represented. Area and random sampling techniques were used to select sample elements. Descriptive statistics were used to profile characteristics of the surveyed organizations and the respondents. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between strategic social marketing, operating environment and performance as well as to assess the effect of each on performance. Strategic social marketing and operating environment were found to correlate with performance indicators. Strategic social marketing was found to impact more on effectiveness, efficiency and relevance but had low influence on financial viability. Internal environment was found to have statistically significant linear relationship with performance indicators while external environment had more effect on relevance measures of performance. Operating environment was also found to have a significant impact on performance of community based HIV and AIDS organizations. However, the operating environment had no significant moderating effect on the relationship between strategic social marketing and performance of CBOs. The joint effect of strategic social marketing and operating environment on performance was found to be statistically significant as they both explained 68.5% variation of the dependent variable. The study concluded that for CBOs to enhance their performance they ought to scan both the internal and external environment; apply strategic social marketing approach in their activities; and create synergy by integrating strategic ..social marketing and operating environment. The study recommends that CBOs and other organizations involved in marketing social goods embrace this approach as their planning and implementation tool as it contributes to their performance. The study further recommends development of a social marketing policy to provide guidance on how social marketing activities should be carried out. A thorough study and understanding of the factors influencing donors' choice of implementing partners is recommended. Developments of new mechanisms and strategies that can facilitate CBOs to achieve financial sustainability are also recommended. Further, the study recommends formation of a National CBO Council to provide a forum for information sharing amongst the organizations especially on successes and challenges in implementation and sources of funding. Further research is recommended to establish the effect of strategic social marketing on other civil society organizations, government agencies as well as CBOs in other sectors such as education.