Influence of provision of basic needs on students' participation in secondary school education in Turkana county, Kenya
Muya, Moses LA
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The provision of basic needs, [or example water, health services, food and uniform improves the student participation in education. The study aimed at investigating the influence of provision of basic needs on students' participation in secondary school education in Turkana County, Kenya. The study was based on the following objectives: to determine the effect of the availability o[ water on the attendance of lessons by students in secondary schools in Turkana county, to establish how the provision of health services affect students' participation in secondary schools, to examine the effects of food provision on students' participation in secondary school education, and to determine the effect of school uniform provision on students' participation in secondary school education in Turkana county. This study is anchored on the principles of general system theory by Ludwing Van Bertalanffy (1968), which provides the link that vividly shows the relationship between provision of basic needs and students' participation in secondary school education to attain quality grades and become productive members of the society at the end of the course. The study was conducted using descriptive survey research design. Target population consisted of the 28 public secondary schools in Turkana County. Principals, teachers. students and DEOs were the respondents targeted by the study. Simple random technique was used to select 132 teachers and 2736 students and then purposive sampling to select 28 principals and 7 DEOs. Questionnaires, interview schedules and checklists were used as the main tools for collecting data and were designed basing on the objectives of the study. The study adopted content, construct, internal and external validities for the purpose of validation. Instrument reliability was also administered through a pilot study and by use of test-retest technique. Data were then analyzed both manually and by use of SPSS. Thereafter, results presented mainly in frequencies and percentages in form of tables. The study came up with the following findings. Lack of clean water has serious effects on students' academic performance and attendance rates. Majority of schools in Turkana County had access to piped water and boreholes as their main sources of water; however, it was not clean. Many health services were found to influence students' attendance and participation in secondary school education. Results from respondents indicated that a majority of secondary schools (64.3%) in Turkana County had health services but without qualified personnel or none and right drugs put in place. In most cases principals were complaining of their learners missing lesson because of waterborne diseases. Furthermore to support students in secondary school participation, majority of health centre were located near schools. Basing on the findings on food provision, a majority of teachers (41.1 %) indicated that food influence the participation of students in secondary education to a great extent. Findings indicate that parents (63.0%) play a great role of buying uniform to students while most parents buy only single pair of school uniform instead of two pairs of uniform. Those students from poor families are supported by well-wishers and sponsors to acquire uniform. The study arrived at the following conclusion: Basic needs should be used as a positive reinforcement for learners to stay in class. However students should be provided with clean water to enhance academic performance and attendance rates in secondary schools in Turkana County, and every secondary school to be provided with health facilities in the nearby vicinity that is not more 3 kilometers away to attend to students quickly in case of sickness. Other conclusions were that: and every secondary school in Turkana County to implement school feeding programme to raise students' participation and attendance, and each student should be provided with school uniform b y parents and other well-wishers to foster positive students' out comes. Students from poor backgrounds should be supported to have uniform to create within them a sense of belonging and self esteem for them to perform well in academic work. The study recommends that public secondary schools should be equipped with basic needs necessary for students' participation and achievement at school. The OaK should collaborate with UN and it is agency like World Bank, UNESCO, WHO and WFP to ensure that basic needs is provided to learners, and principals and teachers should be on the forefront to ensure that school feeding programme policy implemented in school.The following are the suggested areas for further research: the influence of school feeding programme on the students' achievement in KCSE examinations, and the influence of provision of basic needs on students' participation in secondary schools education in other hardship areas in Kenya.