Factors influencing the resettlement of internally displaced people in Kenya: a case of Mawingu camp in Naivasha
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The problem of internal displacement has been a prevalent debate in the Kenyan society, much so in the last two decades. Until the violence that ensued after the hotly contested 2007 General Elections, internal displacement has been largely unknown to many despite there having been internally displaced persons even prior to independence. The purpose of the study was to establish the factors influencing the resettlement of internally displaced people in Kenya with reference to Mawingu Camp in Naivasha. Cross-sectional survey design was used for this study. The target population composed of the 172 management staff of the humanitarian and security agencies at Mawingu Camp in Naivasha. The target population will also include the 1324 heads of IDPs households from the Mawingu camp. Stratified proportionate random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 52 management staff of the humanitarian and security agencies. In addition simple random sampling was used to select 132 heads of IDPs Mawingu Camp by taking 10% of the target population. The researcher used a questionnaire and focus group discussion guide as the primary data collection tool. The questionnaire designed by the researcher based on the research questions was pilot tested to refine the questions before it can be administered to the selected sample. The researcher administered the questionnaire individually to all respondents of the study in the camp. The researcher analyzed the quantitative data using descriptive statistics by applying the statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS V.17.0). The qualitative data from the FGDs was coded thematically and then analyzed. Conceptual content analysis was used for data that is qualitative nature or aspect of the data collected from the open ended questions and the focus group discussions. The study found that insecurity affected the resettlement of internally displaced people to a great extent. The study found that poverty affected the resettlement of internally displaced people to a great extent. The study found that government profiling affected the resettlement of internally displaced people to a moderate extent. Negative attitude of the government towards the IDP projects. lacks leadership in terms of how it should be resolved and political incitement affected the resettlement of internally displaced people to a very great extent. Border disputes and culture of silence in government on land issues affected the resettlement of internally displaced people to a great extent. The study concludes that overall, poverty had the least effect on resettlement of internally displaced people in Kenya and political goodwill had the highest effect. The government used force and threats 1(\ compel IDPs to return to their homes even after it emerged that many IDPs were unwilling or unable to return due to fear of harm by their neighbors. The lack of reliable data is compounded by relabelling of IDPs by the government. Implementation of the ORN Programme lacked proper governance and effective accountability mechanisms. There are places where two or more title deeds exist for the same piece of land. The study recommends the government to put up adequate security measures to enable: return and enjoyment of human rights. Politicians who incite residents to resist the government initiative should be punished severely. Government need to compensate all .he lOPs. Government should assist the rops with registration and maintain a national data base. Registration of rops in Kenya should be coherent and without corruption. There is need for coordination between the Ministry of State for Special Programmes and local Provincial Administration. Government should tackle land disputes one and for all.