Determinants and pattern of sport injuries in selected sports during a season of the Kenya national leagues
Bailasha, Nicholas K
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This study aims at determining cause, type, incidence rate and pattern of injuries according to both gender and sports and seeks to describe distribution of injuries in the sessions, situations and phases of play by sport and gender during 2010 season of the Kenya national division one leagues of basketball, handball and volleyball. Recording of sport injuries in real time (prospective research design) was the main method of collecting data. A total of 768 players out of 803 who were registered for the season in these sports were observed for sport injuries during training and competitions. They included 138 male, 133 female players in basketball, 191 male, 95 female in handball and 149 male, 62 female in volleyball. A sport injury observation schedule was used to record and describe injuries by the research assistants who were assisted by coach/team officials. Pearson's product moment correlation-coefficient and chi-square test of independence were used to test hypotheses of the study at 0.05 probability of error. A total of 2098(100%) sport injuries were observed with males accounting for 1362 (64.9%) and female 736 (35.1%). Injuries incurred due to competitions were 1270 (60.5%) while 828(39.5%) sport injuries occurred during training. According to sport, basketball accounted for the highest proportion of sport injuries with 866 (41.3%), handball 763 (36.4%) and volleyball 469 (22.3%). According to gender, the highest proportion of sport injuries was recorded from handball male players 583, followed by basketball female 462, basketball male 404, volleyball male 375, handball female 180 and volleyball female players 94. Analyses of the findings show that the cause, type and pattern of injuries and their distribution in the phases and situations of play by sport and gender was significant. There is no significant difference on the incidence rate and distribution of sport injuries in the sessions of play by sport and both gender. The findings show that basketball is the most risky while volleyball is the least risky of the three sports, upper limb is the most injured part of the body in the three sports, most sport injuries occur during competitions than during training. Basketball female player suffers more injuries during training than during competitions, defensive play causes more sport injuries than offensive play in handball and volleyball while offensive play causes more sport injuries in basketball. Opponent, partner, self and facility/equipment are the common causes of sport injuries with contusion, dislocation, bruise, sprain and strain as the main types of sport injuries in these sports and both gender. It is recommended that training programmes be made gender and sport specific, be based on the phase, session and situation of play, communication and coordination between players during training and competition. The use of protective and standard equipment/facility, a professional league, national sport policy for each gender, a national injury surveillance system, a national medical fund for athlete's and a board of national bureau of standards for sport goods, equipment and facilities are necessary to mitigate sport injuries in the leagues.