A study of this english public school tradition in the Former government european secondary boarding schools in kenya and its influence on other secondary schools. ,
The thesis truces tlie i^ngliah public school tradition in Kenya and notably in tlie former European secondary schools• it is the author's hypothesis that aspects of the i^nglish i'ubiic bchools were apparent in these European scliools( to a higher degree than other secondary schools. Undoubtedly, it was natural that ^nglisli settlers and administrators wished to provide an education comparable to the very best they could find in i-ngland - the unglish Public schools• »hat were and are these aspects of the ~nglish Public achoolV If an alien transplantation of the mnglish public school did take place (and it is the author's hypothesis that this was soy, to what extent was it planned government policy? did individuals, private institutions or organisations play a significant role? If so, how did they achieve their goals? It is to be remembered tliat prior to political independence in Kenya, there were four sectors of education - European, Asian, African and Arab representing the main strata of society. how far did the junglish public school tradition dominate the European sector and perhaps influence the other sectors? how lias the tradition fared with independence and the new Kenya government policy of African socialism which embraces an entirely different philosophy? lastly, what of the future? ohould the i^nglish public school tradition be allowed to continue in its present form and function? The foregoing are the questions the author attempts to answer in his thesis. humorous schools v are taken as a basis for study; the closest study is naturally made of the former European Secondary Boarding Schools because on these the author's hypothesis rests. In 1861 in England, the Clarendon Commission *1 inquired into "the Nine" so too, 1 propose in my thesis and the kenya context, to establish "the Three" - the Prince of Wales school (renamed 1966 Nairobi School), the Duke of York school (renamed 19&9 Lenana School) and the Kenya High School. It is significant that the Orninde Keport selected these high cost schools and compared them to the two most prominent African schools, Alliance High School and Alliance *2 Girls' High School. It was also significant that these three schools met together regularly, concerning common educational issues, and instituted among other things "The Three Chapels Pund". The Chapel with its Chaplain is an important aspect of the English public school tradition. Lastly, "the Three" are the oldest schools of the former Colonial Government European secondary Boarding Schools. The main method of study has been by personal interview of individuals, organisers, administrators, teachers and students (a list of people interviewed both in the United kingdom and .bast Africa is appended); furthermore the author lias been involved as Teacher, *1 The Clarendon Commission was a Koyal Commission in kngland inquiring into "the Nine"* Lton, Winchester, Westminster, Charterhouse, Harrow, Kugby, Shrewsbury, bt. Paul's and Merchant Taylor's. *2 Page 17» kenya education Commission Keport Part IX» July 19t>5, kenya Government. ( i i i ) Head of Department, Housemaster, Deputy Headmaster and Acting Headmaster in one or the schools under study from 1962 - 1972. Thus if any method is dominant, it is the observational and historical method. At times, 1 may use scientific concepts e.g. •type * or trait but these are only empirical to the extent they rest on experience and observation rather than experiment and rigorous correlation, and should therefore be treated from an unstructured viewpoint and qualitatively. The value-judgements and interpretations expressed are purely personal, and so too at the philosophical level of what ought to be in education. Colonial Reports, education Department Annual Reports, education Commissions and other documents are *1 examined! in addition newspaper reports and educational magazines indicate the climate of opinion from year to year in the schools and the author believes furnish evidence of use to this thesis. There is a wealth of material on English Public Schools most schools have their own written history. It is a great pity there is little evidence at Kenya schools although Ministry of education Inspection Reports help. In Kenya, use was made of the Macmillan Library, the archives of the University, and individual school *1 "Original sources may range all the way from oral tradition to a birth certificate, and newspaper cuttings". Page 36, educational Investigations, Report of a seminar in Research Methods in the Institute of Education. Makerere University College, Kampala. Uganda, by Professor C.A. Rogers, Professor of education, University of Zambia. August 10th - August 12th, 1967* school libraries and offices. In the United Kingdom, the author examined material from the Bodleian Library, Oxfords the libraries of the Universities of London, York, Edinburgh and Glasgows and the library of the Koyal Society of Medicine, London. Various organisations were approached*- the Governing Bodies Association, the Ministry of Overseas development, representatives of Parents Associations, Old Boys and Old Girls Societies, and I wish to thank especially the Headmasters' Conference, Lngland, for allowing perusal of documents and a three day attendance at their annual conference 1970 - 1971 at St. Ldmunds Hall, Oxford. The thesis is divided into four parts. Part I defines the Knglish public school and examines the Lnglish public school tradition. Part II traces the establishment, rise and prominence of the European government secondary boarding school in the context of secondary education in Kenya. It examines in detail •'the Three" - Nairobi School (formerly the Prince of Wales School P0WS)» Lenana School (formerly the duke of York School BOYS) t and the Kenya High School KHS, as a case-study of the former Luropean government Secondary boarding schools. Comparisons are made with other secondary schools in Kenya in order to emphasise and highlight certain characteristics indicative of the stronger influences of the Lnglish public school tradition. Part III regards the transplantation of the Knglish public school tradition as an aspect of colonialism, its effects on other Kenyan schools, and notes the conflict with African aims at Independence and after. Part IV looks at the future for these high cost schools in the context of Kenyan secondary education.