Socio-economic and social cultural causes oand impact of school drop outs at an individual level: a case study in Nairobi
The main objective of this study is to investigate how the social, economic and demographic variables influence students to drop out of school in primary, secondary or any other institution of learning. The research also examines the consequences of dropping out of school on the individual victims. The research was done in Nairobi. The marital status, type of marriage, and occupation of the drop-outs parents, size of the family (brothers & sisters), age the drop-out left school, age the drop-out married/intends to marry, number of children they intend to have, level of education they wish their children to have, knowledge and utility (use) of the contraceptives were the variables that were investigated. Data was collected from Nairobi and the source of information were men and women aged 15-45 years. Open and closed ended questions were asked through a questionnaire. Data was analyzed through statistical techniques. These included the application of descriptive statistics through the work for example a graphs cross-tabulations and frequencies. The findings revealed that more girls drop out of schools more than boys. Also the total number of children the drop-out s father had positive effects. The findings also revealed that more drop-outs came from married parents, followed by widowed, then the separated/divorced and lastly from single parents. This therefore rejects the hypothesis that the more the single parents, the more the drop-outs. The findings reveal that more drop-outs come from farmers (peasants), then followed by employees, then the employers and finally the businessmen and businesswomen. This research also revealed that more drop-outs come from mothers who were first wives then the second and then third and fourth. This research also revealed that early sex experience is in primary and then secondary and finally higher levels of education. This therefore has direct positive effects on dropping out in these levels of education. The findings revealed that there is a high level of general knowledge of contraceptives but the utility is low. The research also revealed that most of the drop-outs were single people 89.0% and were not in a hurry to get married. 5.1% were married and 5.9% did not indicate. Most of them also wish to have few children (two to three) 71.6% and wish their children to learn up to university level. This therefore has rejected the two hypothesis that the early the dropping out, the early the marriage and the early the marriage, the more the children. Finally the research revealed that these drop-outs are very desperate people. Most of them feel that they are failures in life and job (employment) opportunities are very slim. The findings show that most of them have taken the "Jua Kali" types of courses and employments (These are self-employment types of jobs).