The incidence and risk factors of post-operative nausea and vomiting in ENT surgical patients at Kenyatta National Hospital
Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) surgery has been shown to be a risk factor for Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Several risk factors have been identified in different study population. The specific objectives were to determine the risk factors for PONV in ENT surgical patients,' to evaluate the profile difference in ear, nose and throat procedures in relation to PONV and to identify the complications of PONV. The study was a prospective hospital based study done at Kenyatta National Hospital. 180 patients scheduled for elective ENT surgery were recruited and followed up for the outcomes; nausea, retching and vomiting for 24hours postoperatively .. The overall incidence of PONV was 39.8%. The risk factors that were found to be statistically significant in increasing the outcome of PONV included: Age less than 12years, use of opioids as premedication, use of inhalational induction, use of halothane as the volatile anesthestic agent, use of nitrous oxide, neostigmine dose less than 0.04mg/kg, presence of a nasogastric tube and presence of pain in the early postoperative period. For the overall 24hours postoperatively, patients who had surgery done in the nose had a relatively higher incidence of PONV. In this study, no significant medical consequences were seen.