Magnitude, Pattern And Level Of Awareness Of Diabetic Retinopathy At Korle-bu Teacidng Hospital Accra-ghana
Purpose: To determine the magnitude, pattern and level of awareness of diabetic retinopathy among patients with diabetes mellitus at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra-Ghana. Methods: This was a hospital based cross-sectional analytical study, conducted on diabetic patients attending Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Participants were referred from the diabetic centre and other departments who consented to the study. Visual acuity was assessed with the use of Snellen's chart. They were assessed for diabetic retinopathy using stereoscopic biomiscroscopy with a 90D and 20D loupe. Diabetic retinopathy was clinically graded using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Guidelines. Blood pressure, fasting blood sugar and HbA1c were measured. Level of awareness about diabetes mellitus and its effect on the retina was assessed. Data was recorded in a questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS Version 16.0. A significance level of 95% was used. Results: Of the 313 participants examined, (204 were females and 104 males) with a mean age of 55.3years. Their age range was from 22 to 82 years. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was found to be 49.0%. Non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) with cli ic-Ily significant macula oedema (CSME) was found in 44 participants (14.1%), while severe non proliferative diabetic retinopathy was found in 3 patients (1.0%). High risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy (HRPDR) was found in 12 participants (3.8%) and vision threatening retinopathy (HRPDR) not amenable to photocoagulation was found in 11 participants (3.5%). Diabetic retinopathy was associated with long duration of diabetes, high blood pressure, high FBS and HbAlc. Awareness that diabetes mellitus affects the eyes was found to be 76.0%. However only 61 patients (19.5%) x knew that diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes was found in 305 patients (97.0%), while 8 patients (3.0%) had type 1 DM. Majority of patients had seen an "eye doctor (90.7%) but only 113had had eye examination. Conclusion: NPDR with CSME was found in most of the participants. Majority did not know about diabetic retinopathy (Diabetic eye disease). Recommendation: There is the need for awareness creation among diabetics on diabetic eye disease.