Nutritional knowledge, status and dietary practices: a case study of Diabetes type II patients Kikuyu Mission hospital diabetic clinic
Wahome, Emily M
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Diabetes type II is a chronic metabolic disorder that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or when the body cannot effectively utilize the insulin it produces. This results in elevated blood sugar (hyperglycemia) which over time can lead to multiple organ damage, and complications including - eye complications, heart and blood vessels, kidneys, nervous system and foot complications leading to amputations. Dietary management and healthy weight are the best ways to control blood glucose. This can only however be achieved if diabetes patients have adequate and appropriate nutritional information, coupled with sound dietary practices. The objective of the study therefore was to determine nutritional knowledge, nutritional status and dietary practices of type II diabetes patients, in Kikuyu Mission Hospital. A cross-sectional study with both descriptive and analytical component involving purposively sampled 153 adults living with type II diabetes from Kikuyu Mission hospital was conducted between September and November 2011. Data collection tools included a pre-tested semistructured questionnaire, key informant interview guide, a food frequency questionnaire and a nutrition knowledge marking guide. Data was collected on demographic and socio-economic status, respondent's nutrition knowledge, nutrition status and dietary practices. Five well qualified and trained field enumerators assisted in data collection. The data was analyzed using SPSS software package. The p value for statistical significance was set at<0.05.The Results showed that the average meal frequency was three times per day (inclusive of snacks, which was below the recommended 5-6 times per day. The consumption of some vegetables was very high and these vegetables included tomatoes,spinach,green pepper and carrots. The frequency of consumption of fruits was quite low, majority consumed them seasonally. The main staple consumed was ugali (a product ofmaize).Majority did not consume sugar and sugar products 67.3% never consumed cake,84.3% biscuits and 90.2% jam. Most diabetic parients are obese (50.9%) with majority being in class III obesity(29.4%). Most respondents (82.5%) have average dietary diversity scores (4-8) food groups .There is a positive association between nutrition knowledge and dietary diversity.(r=0.02),(p<0.05). Education level of the respondents is related to their nutritional status ( r=2.714, P=0.007),nutrition knowledge ( r=1.673,P=0.02 ) and dietary practices ( r=2.392,P=0.018) in a positive wily. Nutrition knowledge of the respondents is inadequate because the majority (69.3%) have low nutrition knowledge and none ranked in the highest level. Majority have attained secondary school education. There is a significant difference between nutrition knowledge and nutrition status (p=0.044). From the research findings, obesity is the major factor leading to high prevalence of type II diabetes. Having high nutrition knowledge would therefore help people with diabetes and the community in general in managing their weight and controlling their blood sugar. High level of education is also very important as it influences nutrition knowledge, nutritional status and dietary practices in a positive way.