Demography and histologic pattern of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in kenya.
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Background. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is a common head and neck cancer worldwide. Objective. To determine the demographic characteristics of patients with laryngeal cancer, establish their tumor characteristics and relate it to their smoking and alcohol ingestion habits. Methods. Fifty cases and fifty controls were recruited of matching age, sex, and region of residence. History and pattern of cigarette smoking and alcohol ingestion was taken and analyzed. Results. 33 (66%) of the cases and 3 (6%) among controls were current cigarette smokers. 74% had smoked for more than 30 years, P < 0.0001 OR 21.3 (95% CI: 2.6-176.1). There was a male predominance (96%) and most cases (62%) were from the ethnic communities in the highland areas of Kenya predominantly in Central and Eastern provinces. Very heavy drinkers had increased risk of P < 0.0001 OR, 6.0 (95% CI: 1.957-18.398) and those who smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol had poorly differentiated tumors G3, P < 0.001, OR 11.652 (95% CI 2.305-58.895), and G4, P=0.52 OR 7.286 (95% CI 0.726-73.075). They also presented with advanced disease (73.6%). Conclusion. Cigarette smoking and alcohol ingestion are strong risk factors for development of late stage and poorly differentiated laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Kenya.