Levels, Trends And Differentials In Primary Infertility In Kenya
The study focused on the levels, trends and differentials of primary infertility in Kenya, its three objectives were: to re-examine the levels of primary infertility in Kenya, to determine the trends of primary infertility and to establish differentials of primary infertility rate in Kenya. The study utilized proxy data drawn from the Kenya 1989 and 1999 population censuses data on children ever born and was restricted to ever married women in order to ensure valid sample for the estimation of primary infertility. This is because in sub-Saharan Africa people place a high premium on children such that it is possible some cases of divorce or remarriage could be associated or due to infertility. Also, emphasis was given to ever married women towards the end of their fecund period (40-49) in order to ensure adequate exposure to childbearing. The findings suggest that the levels of primary infertility in Kenya are moderate compared to other countries. From the 1989 census data, the magnitude of primary infertility in Kenya among ever-married women aged 40-49 was 2.63 percent. The 1989- 99 decade experienced a slight increase and recorded 2.81 percent. The analysis further revealed that the magnitude of primary infertility in Kenya is higher when ever-married women aged 50+ are factored in the estimation of primary infertility. The findings show that primary infertility is evident in urban areas compared to rural Kenya and also in Coast, Nairobi and Nyanza provinces compared to other regions of Kenya. Central province has the lowest rates over time. There was no clear relationship between education and primary infertility in Kenya. Primary infertility has reproductive health and social implications and hence the study recommends improving access to quality infertility services at all levels and strengthening programs that are centered to meet the needs of specific regions with higher infertility rates rather than national only. Also, the study recommends enhancing training in the management and prevention of infertility at all the levels of health care. Regarding further research, the study recommends that qualitative approaches and more variables should be employed in order to gather better insights on infertility and to develop a better understanding of the contribution of infertility to fertility. A study on the factors determining the higher prevalence rate of primary infertility in urban areas and regions like Coast, Nairobi and Nyanza provinces should be encouraged. Research on secondary infertility should be carried out since secondary infertility may exist in a much larger extend.