|dc.description.abstract||In the tick-borne disease (TBD) control research and development continuum, delivery systems for TBD control have invariably been considered last, after diagnostic tests, vaccine development and other technical functions. This is not altogether surprising, since from an animal health research perspective the development of a TBD control technology comes before its delivery. However, from an investment and commercial perspective, the logical first step is to critically evaluate, exante, what are the potential net benefits of different control options. In the calculation of potential net benefits, the costs, feasibility and sustainability of delivery systems need to be included as factors. The general economic and specific agricultural environments influencing the choice and delivery methods for animal health services are changing very rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa. Reduced public sector resources, privatisation and market-oriented policies are new and future realities that have been adopted by virtually all governments in the region. In the delivery of animal health services, there has been increased interest in the last 10 years in the relative role of the public and private sector and other issues related to the feasibility and sustainability of the delivery systems for animal health services (de Haan 1995; de Haan and Bekure 1991; FAO 1990; Holden et al 1996; Leonard 1985; Perry 1996; Schillhorn van Veen and de Haan 1995; Umali et al 1992).
Any proposed animal health delivery service must be demonstrated to be cost-beneficial, adaptive and sustainable. This paper will focus on the general considerations for planning and evaluating TBD control delivery systems and not emphasise technical considerations such as cold chains and handling of live vaccines. It will be argued that the net benefits, ease of delivery and sustainability of TBD control delivery sytems will vary greatly between potential target groups of farmers and between specific farming systems. The identification and ranking of the most promising target groups and areas should be done using exante methods. However, for other groups and areas without a high economic or sustainability ranking, special provisions will need to be made if other criteria require that TBD control be delivered there, most probably relying on lessons learned as experience is gained in delivery methods in target groups and areas. In the planning of delivery systems for TBD control for any group within any area, special emphasis needs to be placed on the linkages between different key players, since the total system can be undermined by the failure of any one component||en_US