Public Health Measures: Challenges of Developing Countries in Management of Food Safety
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Developments in food safety pose challenges to developing countries in ensuring adequate supply of safe foods for domestic and international markets. Food scares and changes in international trade have alleviated food safety concerns in international food policy. The recent developments include: increased emphasis on food safety regulations, strict food safety standards, reorientation toward preventive quality management, and a shift toward process-based standards and mandatory Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. Smallholder production systems and small–medium enterprise characteristics of food processing industries impedes the achievement of domestic and international food safety standards. The proliferation, multiplicity, strengthening, costs of compliance, increasing specificity, and lack of harmonization of international food safety standards are major concerns for developing countries. The most serious challenges have been the costs of failing to meet international food safety standards, but they should be viewed as catalysts toward food safety improvement. Food regulatory infrastructures are inadequate due to limited resources and a multiplicity of agencies involved making management of control measures difficult. Food safety in the domestic market is constrained by inadequate infrastructure and facilities, resulting in contaminated foods. Increasing incomes, urbanization, literacy, and closer ties to global trends have resulted in domestic consumer-based concerns about food safety.