Influence of head teachers' instructional supervision practices on pupils' performance in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Kilifi district, Kenya
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which headteachers frequency of checking teachers' records of work and pupils' notes, conducting model teaching sessions and classroom observations influenced pupils performance in KCPE. In addition, the study sought to determine whether setting of targets and provision of adequate learning resources influenced KCPE performance in Kilifi district. The study employed descriptive survey using systems theory. The sample was composed of 25 headteachers and 320 teachers. The data for both teachers and headteachers was collected by the use of questionnaires. Findings revealed that checking of teachers records of work does not have an influence on pupils' performance. Checking of pupils work has also proved to have no effect on performance in that 75% of the headteachers noted that they check pupils' notes yet their schools performed lowly. Among the schools visited 60% of the teachers reported to be instructing the pupils to read and make notes on their own or even copy from the text books provided. If the headteachers instruct pupils note to copy notes from textbooks and even report the mode of notes making can improve performance greatly. According to the researcher, holding of model teaching sessions influences performance. This is because respondents from performing schools indicated the existence of model teaching session in their schools. Classroom observation as a supervisory practice by headteachers is mainly evident among the performing schools. Out of the 20 headteachers visited, 55% them admitted not to be performing it due to being overloaded. From the research findings, schools that set targets perform better than those which do not. Provision of learning and teaching resources has an influence on performance of pupils. This is so because most schools that have shown good performance have adequate resources. Based on the above findings, it was concluded that provision of resource materials influences pupils' performance greatly. This concurs with Eshiwani (1983) findings and Njuguna (2004) though it was of different levels of learning. While checking on pupils notes have a smaller percentage in influencing pupils' performance. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made; Headteachers should involve both teachers and pupils in setting targets for them to own them and serve as a guide in directing their energies. Clinical supervision should be done more often or always for better performance. In order to be able to do so, the TSC should employ headteachers mainly to perform supervision duties rather than recruiting and training headteachers on the job who were earlier trained as classroom teachers. Teaching and learning resources should be provided at the right time and adequately to avoid inconveniences. The Ministry of Education therefore should ensure that funds reach the schools at the right time. The headteachers should hold model teaching sessions more frequently in order to create a common culture hence improving pupils performance in KCPE. In doing so, time should be allocated for example introducing, half term which can be used for teacher education.