Institutional factors influencing students' unrest in secondary schools in Nairobi North district, Kenya
The study sought to identify institutional factors influencing students' unrests in secondary schools in Nairobi North, Kenya. Specifically to identify causes of secondary students' unrest, establish the extent to which peer pressure contributes to students' unrest ,assess the extent to which head teachers leadership contributes to students' indiscipline and unrest, assess the extent to which indisciplined prefects influence secondary school students' unrests, establish the measures that have been taken by teachers to curb unrests in schools. The study was guided by the theory of conflict originated by Karl Max (1818-1883). This study used descriptive survey to establish institutional factors influencing unrests in secondary schools. The target population of the study included all the 40 secondary schools in the district which are comprised of 40 head teachers, 1,034 teachers and 14,100 students. A sample of 792 respondents made up of 22 head teachers, 110 teachers, and 660 students were selected through stratified random sampling. Questionnaire tools were used to collect the data where three sets of tools were developed for students, teachers and head teachers. Piloting was done to improve on the validity of the tools. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient formula was employed to test the reliability and a coefficient of 0.80 was realized. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 The study found that the causes of unrest included poor school administration, parents' lack of concern of their children, bad company, influence of students into bad company within the school, strict school rules, poor diet and bad food in schools, poor teacherstudent relationship, poor leadership, too much free time given to students, dysfunctional families, inadequate teachers in schools, drug abuse and peer pressure among students, lack of guidance and role models, lack of proper guidance & counseling, lack of strict rules to moderate students, lack spiritual guidance, adolescence pressure. Teachers managed discipline through administering punishment, dialogue, addressing their grievances, holding motivational talks, being firm on indiscipline cases, caning and expulsion, guidance & counseling, establishing disciplinary committees, invitation of external counselors, encouraging free channels of communication, provision of good quality food, establishing well defmed school rules, and sending students for their parents. The study concluded that Peer pressure, head teachers leadership, prefects' indiscipline and teachers' management of discipline contribute to secondary school students' unrest. The study recommended that Ministry of Education to organizes annual training for secondary school prefects on managing fellow students in schools. Head teachers association where they would meet on a regular basis to share experiences on managing students discipline in their respective schools and Teachers Service Commission revises the teachers transfer policy especially when it was in the middle of the syllabus. The study was also limited to only one District in Nairobi County which was not likely to reflect the social class, structure and attitudes of other districts in the country. The findings of the study therefore need to be applied in other places with some caution. A replication of the study country wide is therefore necessary as an area for further research.