The contribution of human factors in the performance of construction projects in Kenya: a case study of construction project team participants in Nairobi
Ideally, projects designed and managed by highly trained construction professionals and executed by qualified contractors selected on the basis of their capability should meet the project performance goals. These goals are in terms of contract period, budget, quality, environmental sustainability and client satisfaction. However, there is evidence that despite the high quality of training of consultants in the building industry in Kenya and regulation of the industry in major urban areas, construction projects do not always meet their goals. This is manifested by myriad projects that have cost overrun, delayed completion period and poor quality resulting to collapsed buildings in various parts of the country, high maintenance costs, dissatisfied clients and even buildings which are not functional. This research undertook to investigate how human factors contribute to achievement of the construction project management goals of cost, time, quality, environmental sustainability and client satisfaction. The study was focused on the mental side of construction management rather than the technological side of the enterprise. Questionnaires were administered to building consultants, contractors and developers who were selected using a random sampling procedure. Quantitative and Qualitative methods of analysis were used. A cause effect regression analysis was used to fmd out if a relationship existed between human factors and performance by construction participants. The study established that there was a strong relationship between most of the human factors that had been identified. Appreciation of members of staff by firms' supervisors which is a psychological factor showed the strongest correlation (R2 = 0.903 Sig F = 0.00 df= 1,35), followed closely by appreciation by team members (R2 = 0.898 Sig F = 0.00 df = 1,35), while salary came third (R2 = 0.890 Sig F = 0.01 df= 1,35). In addition, a single model hypothesis test using multiple Regression analysis show that there is indeed a strong correlation between human, social and motivational factors with project performance. The study recommended appreciation of employees and reducing simplifying the organization structure to integrate employees as a means of overcoming human factors caused by the broad, fragmented traditional structure where design is detached from construction. It also recommended a study to set out ideal levels of reward and remuneration commensurate to the effort as well as identifying any changes in client organization demands over time which has affected construction project performance.