The Role Of Regional Organizations In Conflict Management: A Case Study Of IGAD Peace Process In Sudan Conflict (1993 -2005)
This is a post-referendum reflection of the Sudan conflict. This conflict is the longest and worst conflict in African history after Angola with millions of casualties. It had great impact both within the Sudan and the region at large. It is estimated that 1.3 million of people died, though there has not been a reliable official figure. The actual figure notwithstanding, separate reports of the various clashes leave no doubt that the conflict was catastrophic in terms of human life. Apart from the dead, the war was responsible of displacement of many people both internally and into neighbouring states. This conflict ended with the signing of Comprehensive Peace Accord in 2005 brokered by the IGAD-led peace process. The Accord was substantially implemented when the referendum was held in January 2011 in which Southerners voted to secede. This paper explored the uniquenesses of the IGAD-led peace process by presenting a comparative analysis with respect to predecessor initiatives. It also explored the role of the international community in mediating for peace. It identified success factors such as followthrough initiatives, a more specialized approach, proximity of the mediating party, the contribution of neighboring countries especially Kenya and the coordinated input of the IGAD Partners Forum. By presenting a post-referendum reflection of the peace process, it makes recommendations that would be important in ensuring that post-war Sudan recover and become sustainable.