Opportunities and barriers to implementing energy efficiency in selected pumping installations in Kenya
This project was aimed at evaluating opportunities and barriers to implementing energy efficiency in 5 selected pumping installations-viz Kenya Pipeline Company, Nairobi Water and Sewerage Company, Nzoia Sugar Company, Davis and Shirtliff, and SpinKnit Diary. This would give insight into energy utilization, efficiency and provide information as to the barriers encountered in implementing energy efficiency measures in the pumping systems. In this study, energy efficiency refers to the ratio of the energy imparted to the fluid to electrical energy or oil energy supplied. The study involved surveying of selected pumping installations in the country to identify energy saving opportunities and to investigate the nature of barriers to implementing energy efficiency. The study was conducted by identifying installations in Kenya whose core business involved mainly pump systems. Data collection was by the use of interviews, observation and questionnaires. Data was analyzed and recommendations were made on the measures to minimize the effects of barriers to realizing effective energy efficiency. In four out of the five installations surveyed it was not possible to determine at what efficiency the pumps were being run. This was due to lack instrumentation and manufacturers performance data of the pumps. However, in one of the installations (Kenya Pipeline Company) there was adequate instrumentation to enable quantification of energy saving potential. Except for one pump in one installation (Nairobi Water and Sewerage Company) all pumps were driven by electric motors. Indeed most of the motors were 10 years more old and some had been rewound. In all installations motors were directly coupled to the pumps except in one major system where gearboxes were used to vary the speed between the motor and the pump and fluid coupling was employed. Also evident were poor pump and motor matching in one of the installations as well as wide spread valve throttling method of pump control. Preventive maintenance was also poor as shown by fluid leakages in the pipe networks. technological knowhow of the performance parameters of pumping systems. Secondly lack of information on existing more efficient equipment. Thirdly company policy and management structure had not put energy efficiency as a major concern. Management of all the companies seemed to be concerned more on product output than on energy used and cost and hence energy efficient measures were never taken as an immediate priority. To improve energy efficiency and therefore reduce energy use and cost in pumping installations, up to six measures could be implemented and this would require overcoming at least four existing barriers.