Inhibitants of comprehensive sexuality education in rural secondary schools; a case of Karemo division, Siaya district, Siaya County, Kenya
Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) has the potential to be a powerful way to educate children and adolescents about the risks and implications of sex. There currently is a debate about whether to adopt comprehensive sexuality education in the Kenyan school system and incorporate it in the curriculum and the extent and type of information that should be appropriately delivered to students in school. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitants of comprehensive sexuality education in secondary schools in Karemo Division in Siaya District, Siaya County. The objectives of this study were; to determine the extent to which cultural values, to establish the extent to which religious values, to examine the extent to which government policies and to investigate the extent to which teachers' awareness of sexuality inhibit the adoption of comprehensive sexuality education in secondary schools. 'The study adopted the descriptive survey research design to study the inhibitants of comprehensive sexuality education in rural secondary schools. The target population was 7 secondary school heads of subject departments (teachers), the principal, 9 BOG representatives from the 15 secondary schools and the Area Education Officer (AEO) Karemo Division which is 256. Therefore the sample for this study was 155. The sampling technique that was used was purposeful selection of 1 girls' boarding school (Ng'iya girls), 1 boys' boarding school (Boarding boys) and simple random selection of 10 schools out of 12 remaining schools. The research instruments that were used in this study for data collections were questionnaire and interview schedule. The interview schedule was administered to the school principals/deputy principals and the AEO. A pilot study was done in 2 schools in Boro Division, Siaya District to clarify the research instruments and avoid contamination of results. Validity of research instruments was achieved at piloting stage and also through expert judgement by the study supervisors. In order to ensure reliability of the instrument, the splithalf technique was used applying the Spearman's Brown Prophecy Formula to calculate the reliability coefficient where a coefficient correlation of 0.724 was found and deemed adequate for this study. Frequency tables were used to analyze the quantitative data. The study paid attention to the inhibitants of comprehensive sexuality education in secondary schools. It was established that culture has a significant influence on adoption of CSE. Religious beliefs seem to influence what parents, guardians and teachers regard CSE to be, and hence low perception. Government has. not done enough to support the adoption and implementation of CSE in schools in terms of resource allocation and facilitation. Teachers seem to be willing to implement given necessary support though older ones are still reserved. Continuous sensitization and community education will help to address the hiccups, religious and faiths groups to playa proactive role and be open. The government need to channel more resources towards CSE and teacher education motivation and facilitation will enhance the adoption of CSE in secondary schools.